Identifying key questions in the ecology and evolution of cancer

Authors: Antoine M. Dujon; Athena Aktipis; Catherine Alix‐Panabières; Sarah R. Amend; Amy M. Boddy; Joel S. Brown; Jean‐Pascal Capp; James DeGregori; Paul Ewald; Robert Gatenby; Marco Gerlinger; Mathieu Giraudeau; Rodrigo K. Hamede; Elsa Hansen; Irina Kareva; Carlo C. Maley; Andriy Marusyk; Nicholas McGranahan; Michael J. Metzger; Aurora M. Nedelcu; Robert Noble; Leonard Nunney; Kenneth J. Pienta; Kornelia Polyak; Pascal Pujol; Andrew F. Read; Benjamin Roche; Susanne Sebens; Eric Solary; Kateřina Staňková; Holly Swain Ewald; Frédéric Thomas & Beata Ujvari

Source: Evolutionary Applications (DEC 2020)

Brief summary of the paper:

The application of evolutionary and ecological principles to cancer prevention and treatment, as well as recognising cancer as a selection force in nature, has gained impetus over the last 50 years.

Following the initial theoretical approaches that combined knowledge from interdisciplinary fields, it became clear that using the eco‐evolutionary framework is of key importance to understand cancer. We are now at a pivotal point where accumulating evidence start to steer the future directions of the discipline and allow us to underpin the key challenges that remains to be addressed.

Here, we aim to assess current advancements in the field, and to suggest future directions for research. First, we summarize cancer research areas that, so far, have assimilated ecological and evolutionary principles into their approaches and illustrate of their key importance.

Then, we assembled 33 experts and identified 84 key questions, organized around nine major themes, to pave the foundations for research to come. We highlight the urgent need for broadening the portfolio of research directions to stimulate novel approaches at the interface of oncology and ecological and evolutionary sciences.

We conclude that progressive and efficient cross‐disciplinary collaborations that draw on the expertise of the fields of ecology, evolution and cancer are essential in order to efficiently address current and future questions about cancer.